A solid research methodology is the backbone of scientific research.
The characteristics of sound scientific research are:
1. The research has a purpose - it aims to solve a problem by investigating it and providing actionable evidence.
2. Scientific rigor - the research methodology has to be designed so as to attempt to disprove the hypothesis in every way possible (experiments, estimation, post-estimation tests, etc.). If it cannot be disproved, then you can say with confidence that the evidence corroborates with your theoretical framework
3. The hypothesis should be testable - you should be able to logically test whether your theory is empirically supported by data
4. The findings should be replicable - that is, the findings should be consistent across the board when the research is carried out multiple times in similar circumstances
5. The methodology should be constructed in such a way so as to give maximum precision (the degree to which your data represents reality) and confidence (the probability that the estimations are correct - the confidence interval)
6. The inferences drawn from the results of the estimations should be objective - the researcher should be completely impartial when interpreting the results, and not be guided by biases or emotions
7. The findings from your research should be applicable to the entire relevant population - that is, they should be generalizable
8. When researching a phenomenon, you are testing the hypothesis, which is a statement of causality. Remember that causal investigation is all about trying to explain the variance of your dependent variable. It is recommended that the model you construct to explain your dependent variable should have as few explanatory variables as possible. Only decide to include additional variables if they make an exponential contribution to the model’s explaining power. Therefore, in scientific research, parsimony, or being economical, in building models is preferred.