What is the difference between cross references and secondary citation?

Cross reference is a reference to information located somewhere else in the same document. So if in Chapter 3 of a book, the reader is referred to Appendix A for more detailed information on a specific topic, that’s a cross reference. Also, if you use MLA format, a cross-reference is a way to reference multiple articles in an edited work. In MLA, you can include the full citation for the edited book itself in the reference list, and then for each article, just list the author, article title, last name(s) of the editor(s), and the page numbers for the article.
A secondary citation is a reference to a work that was referenced in a different document, but that you did not actually read yourself. For example, you are reading a new book by Tom Jones that includes a description of a study by John Smith. You want to discuss Smith’s work in a paper you are writing but don’t have access to his report; you only know about his study because you read about it in the book by Jones. So your reference to Smith is a secondary citation. In your paper, you would say something like, “According to research by Smith (as cited in Jones, 2015),

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